The garden for women

She is a proponent in the early twentieth century of the affirmation of the professional presence of women in the garden and particularly in horticulture.

With the foundation of one of the first dedicated schools and with an untiring editorial activity in magazines and volumes.

If, as early as the mid-nineteenth century, Jane Webb Loudon had identified, with her handbook Gardening for Ladies, the need to speak, with a practical and informative, and with great public success, of techniques and instruments to an audience of non-specialists, especially women, with the turn of the century, from a pastime finally accessible even for women, gardening becomes the means of professional development and opportunities, an opportunity for identifying identity.
From the many readings and journeys made in Europe to gardens, as well as from the experience of her work in those she creates for educational purposes, Frances Garnet Wolseley will cut out for her pupils a wide training curriculum where practical aspects are almost more relevant than those scientific. Strong of belonging to a circle that sees among the mentors of his College for Lady Gardeners , founded in 1902 in Glynde, in East Sussex, eminent figures like Gertrude Jekyll, Ellen Willmott and William Robinson, our governess identifies the need, especially in these times of “frenzy” for the garden, to ensure quality profiles to the landscape art. An art related to architecture and twins agriculture and horticulture. In short, those of an expert design figure who knows, with the exercise of imagination tempered by technical skills, considering the conformation of the terrain and the spirit of the places, inspired by nature and arranging the artifice of the architectural elements with measure and proportion . All this, declined to the feminine. Even without great egalitarian yearnings – hesitating remain its positions on suffrage and as far as it is concerned in a personal search for independence with respect to the destiny reserved by its high social status, it remains the daughter of the British Empire and the severity of judgments inherited from the father, commander in charge of the army. The Wolseley then presides over the specific professional affirmation of women through the skills acquired by studying and practicing the lesson of gardening.

As already his previous volumes , often told and distilled personal teaching experiences, this is also the Giardini. Forms and design of 1919, published now in Italian at Elliot (pp. 309, € 22.00), is born, as evidenced by the illustrations of Mary G. Campion, as a collection of notes for the courses. With precise technical descriptions from the obsolete vocabulary and a certain irony, rendered in Italian sometimes with difficulty.
But it is in this context that the aspects linked to the clarification of a dashed discipline in the practice of its many applications and to its urban declination, of the planning of public spaces, seen as an opportunity for spreading good taste, are brought into focus. The discipline, and soon the profession, of that landscape architecture that in a decade would have seen on the island, with the foundation of the Institute of Landscape Architects , the birth of a specific trade association, with protagonists like Brenda Colvin and Marjory Allen.

The architect who draws with the trees

There is a measure, of participation and distance together, of discreet active protagonism.

Which is rarely encountered in that widespread category of books that aspire to tell in subjective their creative work by those who are dedicated to imagining and creating gardens, with result mostly to slip to inventariar catalogs.

Instead, he manages to convey the sense of a passion that becomes a profession – and paradoxically without resorting to any photographic documentation, evoking only at times the character of his interventions for gardens, without the pretension to describe them – the architect who “draws with trees “, As defined by Marco Bay in his story of experiences, in fact, Draw with trees. Stories of gardens , Mondadori, pp. 174, € 17.00.

Bay puts us aside from the progress of his work by sharing predilections and idiosyncrasies, from the premises of an education of the look in the places of childhood to the encounter with the teachers, ideas and practice (Geoffrey Jellicoe and Nena Balsari Berrone), all ‘ inspiration draws from time to time landscapes and gardens pursued in travel (the revolutionary rigor of the Parc Citroën , the synesthesias of the elsewhere in the Japanese gardens, the neo pop of Christopher Lloyd in Great Dixter ).

With an approach always straddling the natural dimension and practices of artifice, in a tight dialectic between echoes and suggestions of what pre-exists and giving however inspiration to the indispensable need to give shape, to add the sign of the contemporary. Tuning wild, tradition and domestic urban. In an interlocut with several voices with places, stories, symbologies and people (not least the client whose dream is called to fulfill) also witnessed, in the illustration of specific interventions, that often micro-accounts are made, from the prevalence of the lexical vault vaulting – paraphrasing – emphasizing, privileging, adding or subtracting, revisiting and contaminating. While still experimenting, sometimes on tiptoe, mostly in continuity, but also forcing out of estrangement, as in the case of palms and bananas introduced in Piazza Duomo in Milan.

Proceeding from garden to garden, emerges a sort of reconnaissance of the inventive modulating the geography of artifice places, from the exotic prealpine lakes to the silversides of the Ligurian terraces, from Versilia to Chianti, to the green of the city, to the curvilinear forest of 3,500 carpini designed for the Pirelli Foundation at Bicocca around a parterre of grasses lined up for variety.

A story telling where the craft, even in the backstage of the studio, the technique of the project, the nursery and the building site, meets the debate on the themes of the ecology of urban plant networks, public space, the inspiring role of art. Giving account of a practice, knowledge and know-how that better than any other is measured in the viaticum of the concluding thanks to the volume, among others, to many collaborators, artisans and professionals – carpenters, tinsmiths, smiths, bronzesmiths, nurserymen , gardeners – and “to the people who grow the trees I planted”.

Plants, flowers and animals at Palazzo Vecchio

In the rich and complex variety of suggestions that cross it, the iconographic program of that condensation of history, art and power that is Palazzo Vecchio.

natura dipinta aboca 300x300

The heart of the political strategy of self-representation of the Medici authority that in the early sixteenth century Florence is consolidating on a territorial scale, it reveals the plurality of knowledge and the stratigraphies of a cultural background that is transversely deployed across the board far beyond the encomiastic design.
Here the artistic invention and naturalistic curiosity converge and dialogue, components of the historical discourse (also in the allegorical mythological variations) as well as assumptions and foundations of a practical attitude as of an incumbent, specific scientific attention, especially botanical.

From the Sala dei Cinquecento to the Studiolo of Francesco I, from the Green Room to the Hall of the geographical maps, between apartments and representative rooms, celebratory meanings and passion for the world of “natural things” mutually reverberate in the crowds of artists and decorators among the major of the Renaissance.

In a single plot, the heraldic omnipresence of the Florentine red lily (actually an iris) accompanies the animals of the Medici emblems and businesses, as well as the black rooster of the Lega militare del Chianti. The attention to the landscape, detected with campaigns from life, to signify the new political geography, is coupled with the passion for nature investigated and, between science and magic, alchemically manipulated. Thus, the curiosity for detail and the vertigo of the collection are testified by over 150 vegetable presences (and a little less those animals) recorded and depicted on the doors of the study. And again, on frescoes, grotesques and whimsy, from the conversients and the infinite theories of missing fruits, first fruits, citrus fruits, from the mixtures of local, exotic, fantastic, faunas and flowers, and festoons, borders and plant architectures, from the chasing of chimeras , invertebrates, marine creatures, minerals, kernels of the Esperidi and plants of the new world, fruit in endless varieties.

To give an account of the recall of these presences, in their dense appearance from one environment to another of the building, now leads us in an interrelated recognition of the history of art, emblematic, zoology, botany, the volume entitled Nature painted . Plants, flowers and animals in the representations of Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (pp. 144, € 14.00), edited by Maria Adele Signorini and Valentina Zucchi and published for the Aboca editions.

In a catalog already rich in titles – from the recent Ecology of Desire. Taking care of the planet without Antonio Cianciullo’s renunciation to the Journey in the vegetable universe of the neo-biologist Stefano Mancuso -, in a choice that deepens and divulges themes at the center of the work, also of research, of a company like Aboca, especially dedicated to the realization of therapeutic products based on natural molecular complexes.
In short, while not disdaining cultivating books, biologically before anything else cultivated medicinal plants.

Call to action. In the garden

There are books that come from practice. And that they tend to return to practice.

In this case it is the call to action in the collective art of cultivating gardens , as the subtitle of the volume by Pablo Georgieff, artist, landscape painter and founder of the collective Colocò that for years has been dealing with gardens as social spaces, also on the wave of twenty years of collaboration with the teacher and mentor Gilles Clément.
A practice that ultimately unfolded in the project Diventare giardino , now in work in the ZEN district of Palermo and proposed among the most significant of the recently concluded Manifesta , the biennial of contemporary art , this year entitled, not coincidentally, at the Planetarium Garden. Cultivating coexistences .

But how do you tell “an action in the garden” that includes indecision and research the unpredictable in balance, which can only be imagined every time it happens and only during ? An action that is always the result of a thousand interrelated variables: the place that becomes a garden; the collective of the humans we cross; the crossing with the living that lives in it; our singular, irreducible desire that can not but be collective in the comparison between different?


The focus lies in an incremental comings and goings between thought and action, a concrete utopia and an attempt to account for experiences of “sprigettazione”, one of the many neologisms that accustoms us to the author who tends to overturn the discourse on the form, on the project – capisaldi instead of the thought of landscape architecture and the garden. Georgieff’s proposal, more than a method, is an invitation to wear an attitude. An invitation to disorientation and to pay attention, integrating signs and variables into a stream of plurality. In the knowledge that the architect’s project is, as the anthropologist would say, only one of the possible cosmogonies. And being aware, however, that this attitude also does not risk to constitute itself in cosmogony.

And here, the explicit hybridization of the proposal with art is fortunately helped, that, beyond the singular, in its collective, social dimension, slams and indefinitely recomposes rules and rhetoric of our “disciplinary” readings.

Canalizing the flow of energy that passes through the group, the suggestion is then to direct the artistic gesture and the formal composition towards an understanding of the dynamics of living beings, to then imagine a way to accompany them.

A mild act. However a poiesis that can only be operational and operationally and indicates a political ethical approach to the landscape.

The poetics of the hoe of the volume by Georgieff (Deriveapprodi, pp. 144, € 15, translated from the French by Flavia De Luca) is direct and moral. Political act aimed at designing an alternative. Transforming a space, transforming society. Because the goal of this type of gardens that they themselves are doing together is the construction of the common good. To be understood especially as “collective performative activity inserted in the passage of time”.

The vegetable kinships – Genealogy of garden plants

There are endless nomenclatures with which we try to give identity to the plants that surround us – regional, onomatopoeic, functional variants.

Genealogy of plants_Tommasi ed_Vìride_andrea_di_Salvo

And on the other hand we have always tried to bring their incredible, silent and pervasive variety into manageable classifications, grouping the subjects in gradually increasing levels of organization (gender, family, order, class). 

This was done by seeking arrangements for assonance and proximity, in an uninterrupted process that still lasts. Critically, and therefore scientifically, varying the criteria. Starting from Theophrastus, from the research on the thread of the analogy of physical and morphological characteristics, to the plant anatomy detected then through the microscope, up to the great systematization operated by the linnaean binomial classification system. In a process of revisions and resets that, with the advent of DNA sequencing technologies, since the 80s, have included, beyond the morphology, the analysis of molecular information in an attempt to follow the dynamics of evolutionary relationships between the plants (also because every year 2,000 species unknown to us are identified by media, while others are extinct, perhaps even before they can be discovered and described).

To propose an access key, effective and intriguing, appropriately simplified, to the design of kinship with which we try to bring order among more than 250,000 plant species, now provides the Italian version by Filippo Pizzoni and Luca Leporati of the text by Ross Bayton and Simon Maughan, Genealogy of Plants. Discovering botanical families . Which is part of a series of volumes “for gardeners” (as duly reported in the original edition of the Royal Horticultural Society) located for the types of Guido Tommasi publisher (pp. 224, € 24.80).

Specifying the uses in the garden, for each plant family they retract, with a set of elegant explanatory tables in color, origins, distribution, preferences, specificity as to flowers, fruits, leaves, pollination.

Inducing us to refine the ability to establish relationships between the morphology of plants, contexts of provenance, environmental conditions, a system of linking families that proceeds with dichotomous access keys leads us to identify them by successive approximations, characteristics and therefore belonging. Therefore it is also possible to use gardeners and correct horticultural associations.

In a genealogical examination of the evolutionary stages of the plant kingdom, which can be read in palimpsest in the plot of trees, shrubs, flowers that crowd every garden, the story of the succession and the various associations of the protagonists unfolds in a sort of competition a relay that never stops updating, as confirmed by the second edition of the report on the State of plants in the world 2017 by now providing a summary of literature and critical analysis on the major issues involved.

Presentation of Landscapes

The knowledge of my parents and we know who they were and their role in his formation converged on the plant kingdom, its wonders, its virtues.

I, attracted by another vegetation , that of the written phrases , turned my back on what they could teach me and concluding, at the end of the budget, a gloss. But the wisdom of the human remained equally foreign to me ;

On the other hand, Calvino speaks of plant words elsewhere, in one of his travel reports from Japan, when he says:

“In the garden the various elements are put together according to criteria of harmony and criteria of meaning, like words in a poem. With the difference that these plant words change color and shape during the year and even more with the passing of the years : changes in whole or in part calculated in designing the poetry-garden note the term project, on which we will return » .

These passages interest me to underline the red thread: the centrality of the relationship, of the interaction, of the analogy – in many ways – established by Calvino between writing for him a way of being in the world, a form of continuous research ; to make sense and the world vault, city, forest, garden, forest, landscape; but also clouds, sand, and especially the connections that plot all these dimensions, stretched between men, objects, animals, tools, projections of the imaginary ….

This relationship, this resemblance, returns explicitly many times.

And perhaps the most declaratory is: after Cosimo has invaded on the balloon, in the conclusion of the Baron Rampante : Calvino writes

“Ombrosa is no more one of his many” dissolved landscapes “. Looking at the clear sky, I wonder if it really existed. That frastaglìo of branches and leaves, bifurcations, lobes, spiumii, minute and endless, and the sky only in irregular flashes and cutouts, maybe there was only because it passed my brother with his light step of codibugnolo, was an embroidery done on the nothing that resembles this ink thread, as I let it run for pages and pages, full of erasures, of references, of nervous gouges, of spots, of gaps that at times are shredded in big light berries , at times it thickens into tiny signs like punctiform seeds , now it turns back on itself, now it forks, now it connects clumps of phrases with leaf or cloud contours , and then it stumbles, and then it starts to twist, and runs and runs and it unfolds and envelops one last senseless bunch of words, dreams, and is finished “(1957).

It is all a declaration of poetics. As you may have noticed, I have emphasized in reading a series of terms of a “shared” lexicon.

Like this, the whole page-palimpsest of forty years of Calvin’s continually reinvented writing is a landscape.

We will return to this report which seems to me to pervade also the book of Fabio Di Carlo, beyond the specific of the reading that he tells us to be his: The one that has been proposed as a declared objective .

I would say that Di Carlo does not run this risk, except to the extent that he seeks it. This book, slim, and is a merit, is the result of an enormous, courageous, unconscious, research work: on sources, as a philologist and on criticism, at the intersection of different approaches and skills, reconstructing cultural contexts, … projections 9 .

Then, as sometimes happens to those who frequently study an object of study, it happens that in his regard an inexorable, disturbing process of mimetic metamorphosis begins. It happens a little to everyone. Perhaps it happened also to Fabio Di Carlo. Not so much, to resemble Calvino, as for his landscapes.

It has acquired the multiplicity of values, the transversal, irreducible necessity of: from there start and return, distance and hierarchy of details, accuracy and profound, analytical, ordering, synthetic view. And in so doing, as a landscape architect, still an architect, in this case it has also become, for us, an easy play on words: “architesto” .

In his book, Di Carlo proceeds for hypertexts of quotations.

Renouncing a chronological setting; to a rigidly thematic hierarchy. As well, the titles of the chapters of his book are speakers. And they reveal the nucleuses around which its reflections thicken.

However, I will not dwell on everything that specifically emerges from these pages. Because it has already been done.

Writing is always tense, full of informed, punctual correlations, with flashes that are sudden, suggestive and highly effective .

Di Carlo succeeds in trying to come to terms with the projections on the present day of the themes he traces and investigates, without bending its meaning. Always having clear that the dominant figure of every production of Calvin is the aesthetic, of artistic synthesis.

These his corollaries in the body of Calvino’s text are also always present in the plot of the analysis of a context. Cultural context of the reception of Calvino : which is not limited to architectural culture but, outlining the historical-political framework and here some chronological support would perhaps be useful to the young reader, mentions the sociological, proto-environmental context, cultural debate, literary debate, the loss of centrality of man , the progressive awareness of the limits of development.

To measure the importance of the multifaceted presence of Calvino in this network of relationships, one thinks of one of the major publishing operations, today’s disclosure, high, launched by a publishing house, the Einaudi … of Einaudi, where Calvino is from a young age pars magna and it will remain until the crisis of 84, when it will begin to publish with Garzanti.

We are at the beginning of the 70s: When the first volume of the History of Italy comes out , inspired – with a tribute to the March Bloch title of the original Characters -, to a long-time historiography. Original features, where Emilio Sereni’s vulgate of his History of the agricultural landscape (of ten years before) is hosted.

It is 1972. The year of publication of the Invisible Cities .

And, ten years later – if we want to continue the game, we are among the “square literature” of If a winter night ( 1979, with its fantastic quarter of a book – also investigated by Di Carlo – On the carpet of leaves illuminated by luna ) and Palomar (1983) .

When, then, a Calvino in the role of journalist for La Repubblica will review the volume V of the series of the Annals always of the History of Italy . Volume entitled Il paesaggio , curated by Cesare de Seta.

And Belpoliti, Calvino’s critic, to whom much Di Carlo refers, underlines how in that review of 1982 ( La città pensata: the measure of space ) , Calvino points out that “the dimension of the urban void is” an Italian mental constant “, through which the Renaissance “ideal cities” are linked to the metaphysical ones of De Chirico ” .

All this to say how Di Carlo’s work is measured with a cultural scene where forty years Calvino is variously a “first protagonist”. A Calvino who is also a man of publishing.

From a text that collects some of his interventions in this area, the title is a documentary exhibition that can still be seen until the end of the month at the National Library. The books of others. The editorial work of Italo Calvino.

That gives the measure of its role as creator and organizer of publishing initiatives, up to the choice of covers and the promotion of books .
– Calvino: Director of the series (the Small Scientific-literary Library , the Centopages ), compiler and re-inventor of the 200 Italian Fiaws , writer for the radio (the story of the Orlando furious in 1968 ), the theater , music , the visual arts .
– Calvino: Author of introductions, curators, bands and twists. Paratesti, as they are called in jargon.

Paratesti from the particular critical relief when it comes to his works. Paratesti of which Di Carlo makes a wise use in his book

And, speaking of paratesti on Calvino, we read in the back cover of a non-signed collection of contributions now late, 84, one year before his death:

“Some features of the writer’s physiognomy come out in these pages ‘on occasion’; omnivorous encyclopedic curiosity and discreet distance from any specialism; respect for journalism as impersonal information and the pleasure of entrusting one’s opinions to marginal observations or hiding them between the lines; obsessive meticulousness and dispassionate contemplation of the variety of the world ” .

It is not by chance that his daughter Giovanna always emphasizes her father, as “she worked in order not to be reduced to a single definition, and … succeeded”.

It is a Calvino who never remains equal to himself; that continually reinvents its many seasons.

Think, for example, in 1963, different works come out like the Day of a Scrutineer and Marcovaldo. Certainly with this year it is now evident a rethinking, as Calvino says, of the most “bold” certainties. And it is no coincidence that he will feel the need to “give an account”. Then come new prefaces to the Paths , where he explains his transfigured landscape of resistance; and the Preface to the Baron Rampante , in a school edition introduced by a Calvino professor under a pseudonym: carefully highlighted by Di Carlo.

And it is useful to remember how, both for the man of letters and for the man of Calvino publishing, the concept of Project is central, – it seems to me, inevitably, so dear also to Di Carlo.

Centrality, which emerges in the title of a tribute on the special issue of Menabò of 1967 dedicated to Vittorini, the year after his death: Vittorini: design and literature . Or as in a page where Calvino says: “every time I try a book I have to justify it with a project”.

And if he has been reproached for him with a writing that becomes more and more abstract and rarefied; in him “poetry gets caught sometimes and then more and more often in planning” . …

It is already in the forge of the two years of work dedicated to writing the Italian Fiabe collection, already from ’54 to 56, which develops the awareness of writing as an essentially recombinatory art, textual engineering, workshop where research and analysis the fantasy is valid for the three quarters and for a quarter: which, in a late video interview, is “like a jam must be spread on a solid slice of bread” .

But then, and beyond the publishing and literature, the Project is also a tool for control: complexity in view of the aspiration to consistency: we could say, evoking Carlo Ossola that with reference to the American Lessons emphasizes not by chance how “The ‘legacy’ of Calvino is the winning combination (av) of multiplicity and coherence”.

But, remember the conclusion of the opening quotation: “the wisdom of the human remained so unrelated to me”. Several times, since the 50s, Calvino notes the collapse of a world and above all a way of being there .

In a 1980 text he writes:

“I can no longer hide the disproportion between the complexity of the world and my means of interpretation: so I abandon every bold tone of challenge and I do not attempt any more synthesis that is expected to be exhaustive. Confidence in a long development of industrial society … proves unsustainable, as well as a planning possibility that is not short-term .

On the other hand, without ever deviating from the commitment, Calvino thinks in his own fantastic and how to say always very current Apologue on honesty in the country of the corrupt , published in March 1980 on La Repubblica (not by chance, however, one of the rare now civil interventions on the newspaper)

And, the landscape? The omnipresent pervasiveness in Calvino of that landscape that Di Carlo travels by mapping the themes as many karstic rivers that intersect, I think we can read also in the light of the shared stratum of the first evoked centrality of the relationship between writing and the world, which in Calvino it is substantiated in the many ways of being there, in the world as on page , but assuming, often, synthetically, the name of the landscape.

Under the lens there is the landscape, but if we move back and look beyond the frame we have set, what is it? What is it, what is it – paradoxically – all around, on the landscape?

Will it not be that the ever looming awareness of the crisis of the so-called model of development that we inhabit has found nothing better than to condense, as a symbolic precipitate, also in the already crowded concept omnibus of landscape ?

Perhaps, also because the landscape is better than another Figure of this crisis; since on this our projection the consequences, the traces, the wounds, of its disintegration are more readable and evident

In our alter-ego landscape finds synthesis and face The uneasiness of inhabiting a world like the one where we are now to dictate – in negative – the address of the transformations on the planet. Giving start and name to a hypothetical new era, geological is said, and yet characterized by an impressive acceleration of the times in the effects: it was, that in fact we take the name of Anthropocene.

But also the uneasiness of living in a time that travels under the sign of the commodification of all spheres of existence, until that of relationships (with the rest of the world, precisely, with others, … our desire, our … fictional).

In short, if with Calvino and even more today, the landscape becomes a figure of the world, in the sense of the way of being in it, this means especially that it makes a figure of the way to inhabit the crisis.

So, perhaps it is precisely by retracing the dialectic between the acknowledgment of the crisis of a model crisis in which we are debating without yet and still being able to imagine and develop a new model and awareness of the maneuvering space. residual of how to stay there, which is perhaps outlined for the meantime also a way of being … landscape. In Calvino, ante litteram or, beyond the letter (at least in the sense of the letter of the landscapers, to understand, of the AIAPP or the IFLA)?

A way of being in the world, a landscape attitude that guards the crisis, dialectically lives its awareness trying – at the same time – to move from awareness to the search for answers, however, and therefore therefore has a new model to go to. Without which “new landscape project” is not given .

If so, we can proceed with fencing; to get closer to concluding, one can also say that Di Carlo also deserves merit, weaving the themes of the landscape artist with a lot of disciplinary glasses and throwing out those themes on the plot of a landscape as an attitude to preside over the crisis, to have grasped the vocation of an unconscious, irreducible, because consubstantial, as for a tic, culturally introjected, involuntary, methodologically structuring landscape of Calvino.

The actuality of a reading of the landscapes of Calvino traveled by Di Carlo is then perhaps in the long, analytical and restless step with which we must, with Calvino, continue to cover that “disproportion and inadequacy to understand the complexity of reality”; with the awareness that to be a critical conscience of the world (of the way we are in the middle) we can only be landscape designers. At Marcovaldo, at the Libereso, at Cosimo di Piovasco, even at the Palomar. Alla, … Di Carlo, even when – as long as it is possible – does not make the landscape artist, so to speak, by profession, as well as by vocation .

I conclude , if allowed, and allow time, proposing, as a tribute to the book of Fabio, to reread a fairy tale – thus evoking that iron system of rules so dear to Calvin that he wants, with fairy tales, the fantastic regimented in a perfect device . A fairy tale this time not re-written, but written by Calvino.

I tell you the story or rather I tell the story, because it is worthily recombine since the suggestion of the title: Forest-root-labyrinth – with echoes, crossed destinies, metamorphoses, geometric and reversibility games, from Baron Cosimo, to invisible Cities – and to use of children -, themes and archetypes like those of the forest and the city. A city called, look a bit, Alberoburgo.

Forest-root-labyrinth , this invention of a Calvino 20 years after the Baron rampant , born as a theater fairy tale composed between 1977 and 78. For the sketches of Toti Scialoja (along with other 5) and intended for a transmission for children of the Rete2, in the project of the series The Theater of fans , a series that was never realized. After putting the RAI in the attic, the text, transformed into a story was published, with illustrations by Gianni Ronco, in 1981 and then, again in 1984, it was discussed to obtain a version for the theater of Sicilian puppets in Palermo. In an adaptation – with pieces also by Torquato Tasso and Andrea Zanzotto of Galateo in the woods – and with Roberto Andò’s debut directorial debut. With statues, puppets and costumes designed by Guttuso. In a version that will go on stage after the death of Calvin, in 1986.

 I read and intèrpolo
– Returning from the war to his city of Alberoburgo, the king Clodoveo ends up getting caught up in a forest “so thick that it got dark even during the day”.

“The branches obstruct us,” said the king. “All we have to do is climb over them or crawl underneath.” And the squire: “Rami? These are roots, Majesty “. “If these are roots”, the king replied, “then we are making deep underground”. “And if these are branches,” insisted the old Amalberto the squire, “then we have lost sight of the ground and are suspended in the air.” This forest has its roots at the top and the branches at the bottom

– Since King Clovis was far away, the forest had become increasingly thick and threatening, as if the plant kingdom wanted to besiege the walls of the city of Alberoburgo. And at the same time, inside the city all the plants were wilted, they had lost their leaves and were dead.

Only a mulberry was survived; The trunk is all twisted, full of ravines, dug by centuries.

– Verbena, the daughter always waiting for King Clovis, will then explain to the father the role and the mechanism, saving the parent from an inevitable conspiracy

– See this tree all twisted? If you turn around in this direction you will see the forest upside down, if you turn it around in the opposite direction, the up and down will overturn again …

In short, … then you will read the fairy tale in full. … Suffice it to say that there is a spell that imprisons city and forest and that will only melt when Verbena and the young Blueberry want to get married “and merge city and forest in one kingdom”.

But first, once again, a bird’s eye, here is an incredibly synthetic and current emotional landscape, where Calvino still traces the discomfort, the loss of loss of order and balance – as well as sense. This time, in the story, to dissolve it however happily, also dissolving the classical opposition, forest / city, … nature / culture.

I go back to reading and closing :
… The forest was that morning all a tangle of paths and thoughts of lost people : King Clovis thought: “oh, unattainable city! You taught me to walk in your straight and luminous streets: what was it for me?

– Instead Verbena thought: “The city of squared stone and the forest-tangle always seemed to me to be enemies and separated, without communication possible. But now that I have found the passage it seems to me that they become one thing … I would like the thick sap of the forest to cross the city and bring life back to its stones. I wish that in the middle of the forest we could come and go and meet and be together like in a city …

Then, … between desire and dream, always flying over …

– Blueberry’s thoughts were like in a dream: “I would like to bring strawberries to the city, but not in a basket: I would like strawberries to move, … that march on their roots to the gates of the city … I would like rosemary and sage and basil and mint take over the streets and squares.

And with this image, I thank you and I thank Fabio for this company.

Andrea Di Salvo This text, read on the occasion of the presentation of the book by Fabio Di Carlo, maintains, with some digressions, the oral development and informal of the situation to which it was intended.


Mario, director of the experimental floriculture station of Villa Meridiana in San Remo and Eva Mameli, botany.

Presentation in Hermit in Paris , Mondadori 1994, which contains autobiographical pages.

Note the dual temporal dimension

In Il tempio di legno , Calvino, Italo, Essays 1945-1985 , Ed. Mario Barenghi, Milan, Mondadori, 1995, p. 580.

And for Calvino we know how important it was to “start and finish”: so much so that this becomes the object of the proto-lesson of those then American

Going through Calvino’s work, moving in perspective as an architect – who ventures into limiting disciplines – deepening the intuition of a specific contribution by Calvino to landscape culture, and looking for suggestions and ideas in his work , as a source of inspiration for the landscape project.

And yet always bringing back the lines of reasoning, proactively, in the sign of the reflection of the landscape designer. Di Carlo is above all a teacher I think I have understood (in this not diminishing at all his other skills and abilities, indeed). His study, his reflection, his productions are finalized … to the transmission.

Guide, facilitator, passeur in his “productive” reading of his landscapes of Calvino.

I quote only, About a Cosimo Baron rampant named in the field, pardon … on the branches, landscapist ante litteram, as Di Carlo evokes, and actualizes, ecological networks, … participatory planning; while in the village of the leper-gardeners, as in today’s experiences, it is clear how much natural and cultivated they grow together; Theme that we will find in a Forest-root-labyrinth fairy tale, of twenty years later, on which I would like to return. Or Di Carlo re-narrates the invisible Cities , updating their categorization. Or still takes us flying on a bird’s back (sharing the passion of Cosimo author of Apologhi …) And then …

Reception, as we know, always runs the risk of a teleological reading, with retrospective reverberation of previous works of the authentic interpretation of posthumous American lessons in the mid-80s.

Domenico Scarpa, Italo Calvino , says “Calvino has developed an anthropocentric conception of the universe: man can not be considered lord of all things”

And or .1929 (same year of the foundation of the Annales with Lucien Febvre). Characters published by Einaudi in 1973, together with the King Thaumaturges , in the translation of Carlo Ginzburg.

And in the meantime, travel reports, including those from Japan, mentioned at the start.

After having been since 1974 of Corriere della Sera , inaugurating, with Pasolini and others, the season of commentators in newspapers.

Belpoliti, The Eye of Calvin . If we want, then again, again in 1982 is the number of historical Quaderni , on Boschi. History and archeology . After that of 1979 on agrarian and microstoria farms . Even if only in 1988 it will come to speak, with Alberto Caracciolo of ‘Ambiente as history .

Attention to the illustrations also in his books: from the tables by Sergio Tofano that accompany the edition of Marcovaldo or The Seasons in the City in the series Books for children ; to those of Emanuele Luzzati, for the themed choice of Italian fairy tales for children , to the sketches of Toti Scialoja for the series of theatrical fairy tales in the so-called project of the Fan Theater , with which perhaps we will close this intervention.

1956. Then again in the seventies Calvino returns several times to deal with fairy tales, writing among other things forewords to new editions of famous collections (Lanza, Basile, Grimm, Perrault, Pitré).

Then in volume for the Einaudi edition in 1970.

In 1956 he wrote the single act La panchina , performed by Sergio Liberovici, performed in October at the Teatro Donizetti in Bergamo.

In 1982 La Vera Storia was presented at La Scala in Milan, a two-act opera written by Berio and Calvino.

The pen in first person, 1977 on contemporary art and on the other hand with a commentary on Carpaccio (unpublished 1971),

Collection of sand: ” collects other pages of things seen or that, even if born from readings of books, have as their object the visible or the act itself to see (including the seeing of the imagination)”.

But also marking a difference from Vittorini in this regard: “And here perhaps is the point where my interests tend to diverge from his, to move towards a knowledge in which every anthropocentric mortgage is abolished, in which the history of ‘man exits from its limits, be seen only as a ring, letting himself swallow to the two extremes by the history of the organization of matter, on one side in animal continuity – in which Vittorini continues to see the beginning of man as a jump – and on the other in the extension to the machines of the elaboration of the information) “: Calvino, Vittorini: planning and literature 1967, in Saggi , vol., Milan, Mondadori, 1995, pp. 164-165, cited in Aldo Maria Morace, I the second Calvino. A speech on the method

Dedicated to the Situation of 1978 , then collected in Hermit in Paris , Mondadori, 1994

St Jan Lett . Motta XII.

Although the question concerned the role of creativity. With some effort, Calvino responds by diverting on the imagination.

A stone above. Discourses of literature and society by Italo Calvino. Milan, Arnoldo Mondadori, 1995. The text from the article Under that stone that Italo Calvino published on La Repubblica on April 15th 1980.

See also Domenico Scarpa, Italo Calvino , sub entry Sguardo , p. 231: Calvino says: “In short, what I tend to do, the only thing I would like to be able to teach is a way of looking, that is to be in the middle of the world. After all literature can not teach anything else “.

Term that betrays subalternity to a hegemonic thought.

What else has become, in approximations, good and bad, even in current use, the landscape if not what is around us (to us, to the landscape?), What we put into it. So, precisely our way – more or less but still chosen – to be in the world.

With this dialectic and his projections on today he makes the accounts of Di Carlo throughout his book (and in his other interventions, and I think in particular to the recent, Gardens, unique landscape , where in part very appropriately transliterated – glocally – these reflections on the landscape from a close-up view of the garden.

That is to say – always on the edge of the risk of exchanging the finger that indicates the moon to the moon The finger and the moon are respectively, the task of substitution that the landscapers, say professionals have given themselves or have seen themselves buckled , more than entrusted, and the model of alternative society that, once focused, needs to decline. With various technicalities, but especially for the very fact of having been able to think about it and for knowing how to stay differently – that set of consequent applications: solutions, interpretations, translations of such a new alternative model.

Will not there be by chance, through Calvino … an invitation for each of us to make us (beyond landscape artists) landscape artists – or to Gilles Clément, gardeners who say yes, more or less planetary?

The landscape as a challenge

Presages of landscape in progress

Il paesaggio come sfida La sapienza 3 4 marzo 2016 150x300

A double paradox seems to be investing today in the implementation of the concept of landscape. That in the crowding of opinions and crossed vetoes that invest the role, or due to the hypertrophy of substitutive expectations in it, risks, waiting for Godot, to mark the step to empty and to reduce itself to immobile self-contemplation. Or to work, instead, as a corsair ship, while competing to draw unpublished maps of presumable running landscapes.


If in the long duration of the ancien régime societies the landscape has been read in its stratigraphy in palimpsest as the most evident result of the structure and the type of community that generated it, today, turning the game over, one can well say that , with the syncopated times of post-modernity, it is up to the landscape to become a catalyst for our aspirations (still frustrated) to produce an idea of ​​society that we are no longer able to formulate, once the summary models of the 00 have disappeared and in the face of the dysfunctions of the globalized financial neocapitalism (which we also use as a totalizing explanation-leaf-of-figs of the inability to manage a degree of complexity that, not knowing how to rethink conscience interpretive categories, exceeds us).

The evidence of a landscape to be considered in its continuous transformation, outcome in becoming of multiple recombined relationships (natural variables, material cultures, mental projections) and therefore to us contemporary, that all concerns us in an operative dimension where creatively reinterpreting the received legacy , making a synthesis of its many souls and valences and adding the sign, the protagonism of our many – often contradictory – current events, therefore remains tight, on the one hand from the indeterminacy of an omnibus concept loaded in the most diverse contexts of many, too many disparate senses, umbrella term more and more often brought into play with major, minor or no relevance; called, in the absence of better or in the light of one of his interpretative efficacies as a cognitive model of great timeliness to cover the absence of a propositional thought that in the first place would belong to the sphere of politics, in the noble sense of the term; and on the other hand by an entirely conservative attitude that claims to establish presumed distinctive characters elected to represent models, once identified as authentic, autochthonous, historical, … hypostatising them as presidii of an impracticable preservation (and undesirable if to itself reduced).

Faced with the two-faced risk of indeterminacy of the whole resolve … provided that … (inherent in the role of metaphorical substitution of a landscape as a model of society to be tended) or instead of nothing to do (not to worsen how much more harmful could happen, especially in our country of too many rules and even more numerous nonsense) or at most to proceed to make up for emergencies that occur in the absence of any planned vision, the best minds suggest collating the good things that have happened so far :

Waiting to reconsider priorities and objectives of the development model based on perpetual growth and equivocal equivocal wealth-well-being and in the face of the growing widespread awareness of the planet’s finitude and our co-responsibility, we proceed in the meantime to synthesize good practices aimed at promote the sustainable use of resources, the safeguarding of biodiversity and return operations, compensatory actions, the recovery of places and social contexts compromised by excessive exploitation or by the sudden disappearance of their functional raison d’être. With particular attention to the diversification of forms of connections, also aesthetically productive, between (verses) variously peri-urban areas, the multiplicity of singular sensitivities and collective aspirations that often starting from the notion of common goods are activated in the participatory practices of reappropriation of space public; to the strategic importance that the spreading of the widespread gardening exercise assumes in the urban constellations, with the domino effect of transposing from the individual to the community an ecological exercise of environmental attention and safeguard and with what is valid on a global scale, also seen the spread of the processes of metropolitan concentration .

If these good practices are already an operational baggage where to draw suggestions, looks, themes, opportunities, they are already unbalanced in the sign of experimentation, assuming to ask questions that are diagnosis and “design presumptions”. With the audacity to nominate hypothesis, enunciate poetic, indications to proceed in tight dialectics with other opinions, ideas, participatory processes. In the belief that a renewed shared awareness of the value of the landscape by the local communities is the premise of a civil assumption of responsibility ; Rather, it relies on the intervention and direct and continuous involvement of individuals and on locally decentralized coordination, rather than on the expectation of legislative planning falling from above and of perpetually late institutional policies .

Around the urgency to pursue specific objectives, to the reasons of a priority practical work, the triggering of a virtuous circuit is characterized by the interweaving of a dimension that is both ethical and aesthetic (recognition of value, awareness, identity, word, decision on the part of all the protagonists involved) which, however, implies a shared culture, where investigations of different ultradisciplinary knowledge converge and, in the comparison of experiences, the results of the respective cognitive processes of observation, definition, analysis and then return .

But where above all that diffused sensitivity counts, made of awareness and responsibility, of education to beauty and refinement of taste. That culture, even formalized – result of strenuous, often misunderstood, karstic processes of formation and dissemination, at various levels and for various routes -, where the issues of sustainability and beauty (key word that has to do with aesthetic sense, but also, culturally, with the well-being of the communities, the real one and the one to aspire to) are intertwined; where is the landscape lived to play a foundational role in the definition of a different quality of life.

In a continuous education of the gaze and the senses, of the emotions and of the knowledge, the ecological awareness goes together with that culture of the green (so late in Italy, due to the presumed minority of the technical scientific competences) that feeds on the emotions of the daily pleasure of a horticultural knowledge educated in the care of the garden (private, family, educational, institutional); that is built in practical knowledge, custom, emulation; and that marries the suggestions of the arts – better if in the context of a conscious reception, able to filter out the narcissistic excesses and integrate the novelties – and has for discrimine the aesthetic dimension in coexistence and close correlation with a specific ethical dimension (ecological values) , historical, aesthetic, symbolic, identity in intimate interconnection), distinctive of the garden .

Because, for the meantime, abandoned every anthropocentric presumption of domination, the terrain of choice of this interconnected convergence of aesthetics and ethics that so closely concerns us manifests immediately more precisely that theater of ecological relations in artifact that mimics a defined idea of order of things that is the garden. With the capacity for innovation that incorporates – together with the planetary lesson of “humanist ecology” of the gossy-like gardener Gilles Clément and the calls for the exercise of “proactive” environmental virtues – the attention to a new naturalness . Researched starting from the profound knowledge of the associative dynamics of the vegetable protagonists of the garden, valorized by emphasizing their ability to structure relationships and spaces. So much so, in a leap of scale that does not escape the formal aesthetic dimension and the bidirectionality, prefiguration of a landscape gardening 0 .

We could therefore say, perhaps simplifying a lot, that while the garden remains a translation-amplification of an idealized idea of ​​the world, the landscape, which in the meantime prospectively experiences remnants of itself in the form of gardens, will continue to buckle – and it is not said that it is only an evil and in any case better than just religion or ideology – the impossible mission to identify and synthesize the physiognomy of that world which otherwise we do not know much about imagining. Nor practice.

A landscape cosmogony that anticipates, rather than following a posteriori, that sense that in the things of life we ​​seek.
In order to stay at the word game, in short, meanwhile, at least an omen in act of landscape.

Andrea Di Salvo
curator since 00 in the Vìride column . Critique of the garden on the Alias cultural supplement on Sunday in the Il Manifesto and the Habitus verde collection by the publisher DeriveApprodi

Andrea Di Salvo Landscape as a challenge



See Franco Farinelli, lastly, Il ritorno del paesaggio. The European Union abolishes the idea of ​​territory valid for centuries. Without perhaps knowing why, he has adopted the model of the network , on La lettura , by Il corriere della sera , Sunday 0 December 0.

For everyone, Franco Zagari, Sul Paesaggio. Open letter , Libria 0.

On this you can see the reconnaissance by Anna Lambertini, Urban beauty! Next places and practices of aesthetic resistance , Editrice Compositori 0 and Atlas of recycled landscapes, edited by Michela De Poli and Guido Incerti, Skira 0 and the interpretative hypothesis of Marcello Di Paola, Global Gardens. A philosophy of urban environmentalism , Luiss University Press 0.

On the productive dimension of the relations between places and communities see Giacomo Becattini, La conscience dei luoghi. The territory as a choral subject. With a dialogue between an economist and an urban planner of Giacomo Becattini and Alberto Magnaghi, Donzelli 0.

See Marcello Di Paola, cit.

And where to practice with care the device of the project (in many ways, notion also, as the landscape already, at great risk of indeterminacy, where it doubles the danger of entrusting rescue missions with a metaphoric substitution function). Project, therefore, not unlike the proceeding of the philosophical questioning, as an attitude, methodology of conveying and productively balancing the different coexistent instances of departure towards a desired outcome (assuming that it is obvious – and it is not – “the” way of detecting different instances and needs in the hierarchy, that of configuring the outcome of the “horizon” to be shared: both once again presuppositions and answers to foundational political questions).

There is a wide debate on the difficult to establish itself in Italy of sector training courses and dedicated figures (Fabio di Carlo, News on the state of landscape architecture in Italy , in, June 0), as well interesting for the transmission of “know how” the case of Maestri di giardino (

See David E. Cooper, A philosophy of gardens , Castelvecchi 0, where, beyond the appreciation of specific ways of art or nature (and the combination of these two ways), the author identifies an appreciation ” distinctive “of the garden as well as of” garden activities “that favor and” induce “a large number of virtues.

See its revised text, the environment alternative , Quodlibet 0.

0 On this see Fabio di Carlo, Giardini. Unique landscape , in, October 0. Reiterated the role of fantasy in the invention of the garden by advocating the “artist’s mediating hand”, a precursor protagonist of the spread of green culture in Italy, Ippolito Pizzetti.

Plant Ecstasy

Where we talk about affections and relationships with plants and the daily desire for light and grace .


The vegetal relations of which we surround ourselves, from the vase to the garden, do not speak only of a human desire for light and grace, they say of the ability of the green world to tear us first of all to ourselves.
In observing, caring and letting ourselves be captured by that tension in the existence of living beings with roots, whose history is much longer and will go far beyond ours, a small ecstatic experience opens up. And who knows that it does not derive also a knowledge, from which to draw lessons of resistance and good life.

Gramsci’s roses is a collective event – included in the Sensibile comune exhibition hosted by The National Gallery of Rome during which 18 … people are called to tell their unique experience of relationship with a plant.

  • When does the relationship originate and how does it trigger?
  • Why that vegetable?
  • What tension do you answer?
  • What kind of love does it come from and with what effects on daily life?

Passionate, hybridizers, professionals or amateurs, regardless of the language everyone can speak – be it the poetic or the gardener – what is required is the story of a plant relationship. For 7 minutes.

A differentiated choral word that is the trace of a tension that exists far beyond what one is to be.
Valid for humans, applies to plants.

Landscape Design

The point on the largest landscape construction site in Europe one year after the inauguration.

EXPO Milan 2015 - Landscape Design ACER - Inarch Lazio - Architecture Monday, Via di Villa Patrizi Zagari Andrea Di Salvo Vìride

It is a great opportunity to be here tonight to finally listen in a reasoned and detailed manner to the terms and progress of the Expo 2015 landscape project by Pan Associati with Benedetto Selleri and Franco Zagari.

A rich, convincing project. Of which it is good to speak. It’s good that you talk about it here. Important that you also talk about it elsewhere. On the media. Let it be known, be accompanied, with due attention until its completion from here to a year.
With due Attention, because this project clearly emerges as a substratum of growth, an underlying humus that pervades, fertilizes, connects, orders and orients the entire Expo 2015 exhibition island [1] .
And by necessity, it will be said … Yet it was not at all said.
As we have seen and heard, the project is defined as a framework that makes orchestration of elements (from rings, water and trees, to phytodepuration tanks, from rows to the system of squares and green spaces, to hortus to Latin, and so on … surrounding).

But, alongside contributions from the national pavilion and all the initiatives put in place to / and around Expo, this one’s landscape project begins above all, finally, to tell us that, along with the fashion excellence, food, design and street Talking about it, we need to include a specific high-level Italian contribution precisely in the elaboration and diffusion of a creative landscape culture.

A culture of the landscape that, starting from the historical one, of agricultural productions, in the typologies that over 50 years ago taught us to observe Emilio Sereni (in a wide range of variations to which we now look again with renewed attention); it incorporates current questions and concerns (those aimed at sustainability or in terms of beauty (a key word that deals with the aesthetic sense, but also, culturally, with the well-being of the communities (the real one and the one to aspire to).

A culture of landscape that, even in this case, of an apparent empty ground, to the French, moves from the awareness of the historical roots, the value of their stratigraphy, and also passes through the many – often contradictory – current events. Actuality and roots of which the project is creatively called to make synthesis; reinterpreting the legacy received and adding the sign of today.

Therefore – and not only in the metaphorical value of the term often evoked with the value of substitution – a landscape project. And excuse me if it is not enough and if it is necessary to underline it when all this – at least in these dimensions and with this conscious clarity – we would finally begin to get used to it.

Meanwhile, it happens on the part of our designers, but this was known, given the names; for the clients … maybe, maybe you start to spread this “culture” ?! … This would seem to tell us today this presentation (the very fact that it was possible to think of such a complex and coherent system).

If, trying to wear the glasses of the elsewhere of an impromptu urban ethnologist, or at least the slightly naive wonder of a Marcovaldo in the city, we should like alien researchers to rely on an Expo ‘visit to gather information on a society other than we do not know what we will derive from it.

Expò is, still wants to be a collector, a condenser of proposals, suggestions, as they say, of best practices. What emerges should then, at least deductively, outline a physiognomy as a plural. The risk, however, is the misunderstanding that, in the complexity – of the global and virtual -, now only the possibility of recording a result that is ineluctable … and irresponsible is now only possible.

Here, we must reconcile this approach by asking questions that are already “design presumptions”.

Otherwise, more than the “what”, the quantum, the crowd, the bundling ends up being important. Good and less good, with adjustment in the race and a high risk of practicing the common place. In the paradox, or that this would appear to our anthropologist, of an estimated necessary work, without too much being questioned on why, on its most current reasons. What we would like a showcase to expose something – the best of our model of life – and yet we do not know what it is today. And this also by discounting the hyperbole and the inevitable distortions inherent / predicted in the formula itself, in the rhetoric of the expo, in its rituality, in terms of artifice, spectacularization.

It is precisely this overcrowding, in the times and spaces, physical and mental of the Expo, … this crowd of themes, projections, opportunities and compulsive automatisms makes opportune, necessary a distance trap that is also a possibility of focusing – at least in fruition of the public.

And it seems to me that the project of the landscape of the Expo, which we have heard this story tonight and saw the plot respond to this need. Which, in its aesthetic and ethical dimension at the same time, consists in a fundamental “cognitive” operation of interposition, reduction of squinting, of re-enactment in synchronous, or at least of slowing down, [slowing down to question oneself]. So of focusing.

Digestion of nourishment, to remain metaphorically in the theme of Expo [ Feeding the Planet, Energy for Life ].

Faced with the centrifugal power of the many individual protagonisms (the pavilions), the phrasing of the melodies of the individual elements, as well as the inescapable low continuation of the functional needs of mobility, representativeness, ritualized sociability, the project of the Epò landscape works as a whole as a complex, recognizable yet discreet orchestration. Of elements that are done Texture (list).

Plot with a strong identity character. In the forms, in the materials, in the recurring signs like handholds, easily memorable, re-usable.

Yet, plot of a multiple identity, inclusive of potential, where to recognize each other.

A welcoming design and ordering at the same time: sides, wings, connections rather than marked signs, tears (oh God, less true for the square-lake with the tree of life … and knowledge).

Like a veiling on a painting, a discreet presence enveloping, a latent background note, a leitmotif, a refreain that returns, which binds and contains (in the physical sense, but also one could dare, analytical therapeutic). Who thinks and proposes a framework for the where – and for the how – we walk, where we stop, where we meet thoughts and look, where we breathe aromas and we question.

And where space and time of movement and rest, of orientation, of observation and of interrogation become point of view, opinion, critical spirit … Learning.

The didactic ambition embedded in the project is undeniable, in particular concerning the themes of agrarian landscapes and uses of plant essences. For the plants, for which also in the descriptions that although succinctly circulate in the project, also proportionally in an important way compared to the average we are accustomed to, we perceive an attention which is not at all “gender” and more individual. There is talk of specific essences and plant environments; consortiums of elements, of exemplars formed, in character, we mean; of using techniques that allow better taking and transplantation). An attention that goes beyond that Esperanto which is the Latin of the Linneian taxonomies of the cards, in a poetic graphism, sort of visual poetry, as told to us, by Franco Zagari, in the system of tables, panels, seats. And perhaps to be extended: From the plant folders, to those of the environments, of the associations between species; and – as a watermark – to all the more or less directional signs of Expò. There is also a pedagogical attention to the “aesthetic-formal” dimension of a neonatural garden that is not content to administer a pictorial palette on the surface, but profoundly knows and reinterprets artistic features and mechanisms of adaptation of plants, temporality, scalability, social behavior of plant associations.

In short, a synthesis of technical-scientific skills and of a careful architectural reasoning in the declination of spaces, of artistic culture and creative inspiration in experimentation, as well as a sensitivity attentive to the specificities of plant protagonists, this landscape project for Expò 2015 is already profiled one of the biggest signs of identity of the whole operation.

And it testifies, while we wait for the convergence of individual contributions, how a specific Italian contribution to landscape culture can emerge and be enhanced right now.

What must we do, here too, method, school; overcoming uncertainties and inconsistencies, putting in the network, in its multidisciplinary richness, a multiplicity of theoretical elaborations and experiences on the territory, many projects and experiments.

Therefore, this landscape project for Expò carries a great responsibility on itself. In addition to giving aesthetic-functional answers to the questions posed, which he asked himself. Precisely also starting from the showcase effect that this seat gives to all that touches (and for now, perhaps the most telling is him, the landscape project). The responsibility of being a vehicle, an occasion, an opportunity for promotion [this time already underway and not only still “in power”] of the propositive capacities of a mature landscape culture; and of the “landscape project”: able to orient and leave an impression.

Therefore, this project must be accompanied on the difficult ridge where he has moved his steps up to now.

Close to the ideal reasons, the passion and the skills of the profession, the ability to listen and the solutions put in place and instead the complexity of the process and of the realization context that is looming. Between fragmentation of roles and decision-making bodies and a latent squint between declarations and practices that, beyond any possible “criminal” profile, sometimes betray lack of clarity and consistency in the intentions of the clients.

And, as a citizen, I would like on this difficult ridge, the creative balance seen so far can continue to unfold those that are already seen to be its multiple, beneficial effects.

Is it possible to consolidate loans?

Some believe that money is the answer to all their problems, but that is not necessarily the case. Obviously, a credit card debt problem can be solved with the best credit consolidation loans at – in fact, it’s the only solution. But there are financial problems that can not be solved with great money and a low credit score is just one.

A credit rating does not lie and its evolution is strictly due to your decisions and financial choices. Even if you have made millions, bad decisions about your finances will be reflected in your credit rating. The correlation is done directly and here is why it is impossible to buy a better credit rating:

Your credit rating has an excellent memory

Credit ratings are incredibly grudging; they remember all the decisions and financial choices of your past – good or bad. Each credit bureau calculates its rating in its own way, but a balance that has not been paid on time will remain in your history, anyway. In addition, if you are pursued by a collection agency following your unpaid debts, this will remain in your history and could haunt you for years.

In addition, if your unpaid debts continue to be judged by the courts, the judgment could allow the creditors to seize your salary. This will not only be part of your credit report, but it will also have a negative effect on your rating and no amount of money will be able to remedy the situation.

Your credit rating does not care about your annual salary and your big luxury home

Your credit rating does not care about your assets, income and other possessions. Millionaires can have bad credit as much as an employee who earns the minimum wage can have an excellent odds. The decisive element in credit is in your financial decisions. If you pay your balance on time, use credit cards irresponsibly and do not worry about your savings, your rating will suffer regardless of your salary income.

Some experts believe that this should actually be used to calculate credit scores, but as it is not yet put into practice, it is better to forget this so as not to confuse you.

Financial Turnaround Advisors Can not Work Miracles

If you are willing to pay a certain amount, you can hire a financial services advisor to help you improve your credit rating. If you are not familiar with the world of finance or do not have the time or the means to recover from your financial situation alone, hiring a consultant might be a good solution. On the other hand, they can not work miracles and your credit rating will not improve in a helping hand. Financial advisors review your credit report and do a “clean up”: they try to find questionable items that could be removed from the report, hoping this will improve your credit rating. They can also negotiate with your creditors to consolidate your debts and delete collections reports.

Although this service may be useful for some people, the majority of exercises performed by a counselor can be done yourself. If you are open to learning more about the area and putting in some effort, there is nothing that a counselor can do that you will not be able to do. You will be able to keep your money in your pockets.

What is the best way to improve your credit rating?

A little effort and patience. Your credit rating plays a very important role when it comes to your finances, so it’s okay to want to find a quick fix to improve one’s rating. Unfortunately, a good credit score must be earned and it will be in your choices and financial decisions that everything will be played. Always pay the total amount of the barnacle to maturity so you do not lose control of your debt. If you pay the full amount on time and keep the proportion between your available credit and your lowest balance possible, you should see your credit rating increase.